 # The Symbols In R: How To Use & Code Examples Today, we will learn about symbols in R together. If you want to know what those ways are, the syntax, and how to use them, let’s follow this article to the end.

## Why do we use symbols in R?

There are many ways for the graph to be more beautiful and the blog has more views … One of the ways doing this is to add symbols to the graph, and R provides a package or function to draw symbols quickly. Here we are going to learn about it together.

## How to use symbols in R

### Plot symbols with ‘pch’

The plotting character or call it a pch, and it is used to modify the points’ symbols with pch parameters that can be selected numbers from 1 to 25. Besides, we can set the size of the symbols with the cex argument and the line width with the lwd argument. See the code below.

x0 <- c(sapply(seq(5, 25, 5), function(i) rep(i, 5)))
y0 <- rep(seq(25, 5, -5), 5)

plot(x0, y0, pch = 1:20, cex = 2, yaxt = "n", ylim = c(2, 26),
xaxt = "n", xlim = c(2, 26), lwd = 1:2)

text(x0 - 1.2, y0 + 0.05, 1:20)

Output:

We can set the background with the bg argument.

x0 <- c(sapply(seq(5, 25, 5), function(i) rep(i, 5)))
y0 <- rep(seq(25, 5, -5), 5)

plot(x0, y0, pch = 1:20, cex = 2, yaxt = "n", ylim = c(2, 26),
xaxt = "n", xlim = c(2, 26), lwd = 1:2,
bg = 1:25, col = rainbow(30), ann = FALSE)

text(x0 - 1.2, y0 + 0.05, 1:20)


Output:

So, we can perform the iris dataset by the method above as follows:

# Set up color
color <- c("#33CC33", "#0099FF", "#FF0000")
color <- color[as.numeric(iris$Species)] # Set up shape shape = c(19, 18, 17) shape <- shape[as.numeric(iris$Species)]

# Plot
plot(x = iris$Sepal.Length, y = iris$Sepal.Width,
lwd = 1, ces = 1, main = "Species of Iris",
col = color, pch = shape,
xlab = "Length", ylab = "Width", cex = 2)

legend("topright", legend = levels(iris\$Species),
col =  c("#33CC33", "#0099FF", "#FF0000"),
pch = c(19, 18, 17))

Output:

### Plot symbols with symbols function

We can use the symbols function to draw circles, squares, and stars …

First, we need to add a graphics package before running the program. If you don’t know, click here.

Syntax:

symbols(x, y = NULL, circles, squares, rectangles, stars, thermometers, ...)

Parameters:

• x, y: The x,y coordinate.
• circles, squares, rectangles, stars, thermometers: The shape you want to plot.
• …: Another argument, e.g.: xlab, ylab, bg, lwd, …

Code example:

# Set up a package if you don't have
if(!require('graphics')) {
install.packages('graphics')
library('graphics')
}

require(stats); require(grDevices)
x <- 1:8
y <- sort(8 * runif(8))
z <- runif(8)
zz <- cbind(z, 2 * runif(8), runif(8))

with(trees, {
option <- palette(rainbow(30, end = 1.0))
symbols(xlab = "",ylab = "",x = Height, y = Volume,
circles = Girth/16, inches = FALSE,
lwd = 1.5, bg = 1:30,
fg = "white", main = "Symbols")
palette(option)
})

Output: